Kindly explain the following portion of the Hadith:
كَتَبَ النبيُّ ﷺ: على كُلِّ بَطْنٍ عُقُولَهُ
عن جابر بن عبدالله رضي الله عنهما قال: كَتَبَ النبيُّ ﷺ: على كُلِّ بَطْنٍ عُقُولَهُ، ثُمَّ كَتَبَ: أنَّهُ لا يَحِلُّ لِمُسْلِمٍ أَنْ يُتَوالى مَوْلى رَجُلٍ مُسْلِمٍ بغيرِ إذْنِهِ. ثُمَّ أُخْبِرْتُ أنَّهُ لَعَنَ في صَحِيفَتِهِ مَن فَعَلَ ذلكَ.
(Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1507)
Literally translated, the aforementioned phrase means: Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) ordained/obligated upon every tribe its [appropriate] blood money.
‘Allamah Qurtubi (rahimahullah) explains this and mentions: “After Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) migrated to Madinah and settled down, he created pacts of brotherhood between the Muhajirun and Ansar. He also reconciled and made peace with the Jews that resided therein. He distinguished the bigger tribes (by separating them into their more distinct tribes) and joined some of them together as representatives/deputies (i.e. created pacts) to facilitate ease in securing their (i.e. all of the different tribes’) rights (and dues, i.e. owed to them) and discharging their dues (fulfilling the rights that other tribes had over them). This was because before the arrival of Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) there was much internal strife and warfare amongst the different tribes that led to severe enmity and bloodshed. Allah Ta’ala miraculously united the hearts of the various tribes amongst the Ansar through the barakah [blessing/bounty] of Islam and Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). One of the ways Nabi (sallallalhu ‘alayhi wasallam) united them was by ordaining that the appropriate blood money be given to each tribe for its loss.
(Al-Mufhim, Hadith: 1575; Also see: Takmilatu Fathil Mulhim, Hadith: 3770)
And Allah Ta’ala knows best.
Answered by: Moulana Farhan Shariff
Approved by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar