What is the meaning of يَتَناجَشُوا in the following Hadith?
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه: أنَّ النبيَّ ﷺ نَهى أَنْ يَبِيعَ حاضِرٌ لِبادٍ، أَوْ يَتَناجَشُوا، أَوْ يَخْطُبَ الرَّجُلُ على خِطْبَةِ أَخِيهِ، أَوْ يَبِيعَ على بَيْعِ أَخِيهِ، وَلا تَسْأَلِ المَرْأَةُ طَلاقَ أُخْتِها لِتَكْتَفِئَ ما في إنائِها، أَوْ ما في صَحْفَتِها. زادَ عَمْرٌو في رِوايَتِهِ: وَلا يَسُمِ الرَّجُلُ على سَوْمِ أَخِيهِ
(Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1413)
The word يتناجشوا comes from the word التناجُش which has two meanings:
- To praise a product or commodity to push its sale or put it into circulation (This refers to undue praise void of sincerity. It is done to cheat others and earn a profit, putting the customer at a loss).
- To increase the price of a certain product or commodity (for example: during an auction) without having the intention of buying it.
Both meanings can be incorporated in the understanding of this Hadith.
(Al-Minhaj, Hadith: 3790-3797, and An-Nihayah Fi Gharibil Hadith, Letters: ن ج ش)
Hereunder is an explanatory translation of the full narration:
Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu ‘anhu) has narrated that “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) prohibited a city dweller from selling on behalf of a Bedouin, or that people involve themselves in تناجش (as explained above), or that a man sends a proposal [to a woman] over the proposal of his brother [i.e. brother in Islam], or that a person sells [something] over the sale of his brother. [i.e. Nabi – sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam has prohibited from all of these things]. Nor should a woman ask for the divorce of her sister [i.e. sister in Islam] so that she may overturn what is in her utensil or bowl [i.e. no woman should ever try to break up a couple so that she may then be the sole wife of the husband].”
‘Amr [one of the narrators, rahimahullah] added: “Nor should any man offer a deal over the transaction of his brother [i.e. No one should ever offer a better deal to either the buyer or seller after an agreement has been reached].”
(Refer: Al-Minhaj, Hadith: 3440-3449, 3790-3797, and Fathul Bari, Hadith: 2140, 5152)
Note: This is merely an answer pertaining to the meaning of the aforementioned Hadith. For further inquiries regarding the fiqhi application of the Hadith, please contact a Mufti/Darul Ifta.
And Allah Ta’ala knows best.
Answered by: Moulana Farhan Shariff
Approved by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar