I wanted to know the status of the following Hadith:
Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“Whoever neglects Jumu’ah [due to laziness and carelessness] three times without an excuse, then Allah sets a seal upon his heart.”
Could you also explain what does ‘seal’ mean and what is regarded as a valid excuse?
Imams Nasai, Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud (rahimahumullah) have recorded this Hadith on the authority of Sayyiduna Abul Ja’d Ad Damri (radiyallahu ‘anhu).
Imam Tirmidhi (rahimahullah) has declared the Hadith sound (hasan).
(Sunan Nasai; Al Mujtaba, Hadith: 1369, Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith: 500, Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith: 1045)
Explanation of seal
The commentators explain, Allah Ta’ala will place a seal on his heart and not allow any good to enter his heart. Some have said that his heart will become like the heart of a hypocrite.
(Mirqatul Mafatih, Hadith: 1371, Tuhfatul Ahwadhi, Hadith: 500)
Both of these meanings are taken from other Hadiths:
1) Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) report that Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “People should stop abandoning Jumu’ah, else Allah will seal their hearts and then they will be among the negligent.”
(Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 865)
2) Sayyiduna Abul Ja’d Ad Damri (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports, Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever leaves out three Jumu’ahs is a hypocrite.”
(Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah, Hadith: 1857, Sahih Ibn Hibban; Al Ihsan: Hadith: 258)
Does this refer to three consecutive Jumu’ahs?
Some commentators have explained that this does not refer to three consecutive Jumu’ahs, rather it means three Jumu’ahs regardless if they were consecutive or not. However, some versions of the Hadith clearly state ‘consecutively’. The preferred meaning will therefore be, ‘Whoever misses three consecutive Jumu’ahs…’
(Refer: Mir’atul Mafatih, Hadith: 1382)
Kindly refer to Mufti/Darul Ifta for clarification on what is regarded to be valid excuses.
And Allah Ta’ala Knows best.
Answered by: Moulana Suhail Motala
Approved by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar